Obesity is a serious health problem that is becoming increasingly prevalent today, and it plays a role in the development of a variety of acute and chronic fatal diseases. As a result, patients who do not want to have health problems and who have obesity problems should work with a physician and a dietitian to achieve their ideal weight.
Obesity is a condition in which the amount of fat mass in the human body is excessively high in comparison to lean mass, which contains other components such as bone, muscle, and water. Obesity is defined as having a body mass that is significantly greater than one's height. Obesity is a disease that can be prevented and treated through weight-loss diets and lifestyle changes. However, in patients with advanced obesity, especially when the risk of serious complications is high, bariatric surgery applications such as tube stomach, stomach reduction, and gastric bypass can be used in accordance with physician recommendations in patients with advanced obesity.
Stomach reduction surgery is the most common name for obesity surgery. It is a type of closed surgery that is evolving with the advancement of technology. In obesity surgery, not every patient receives the same treatment. There is no one-size-fits-all solution. Each patient's best method is different. All obesity surgeries, on the other hand, are performed using the closed surgery method.
Instead of a large abdominal incision, obesity surgeries are performed with millimeter-sized holes. Patients can stand up the next day after surgery. Being discharged in a few days is not a problem. And he'll be back at work in less than a week. The pain is reduced because large incisions are not opened.
The surgical team determines which surgical method will be used based on the patient's characteristics. In general, the vast majority of patients prefer sleeve gastrectomy surgery. In rare cases, bypass surgery may be the first surgical option.
In some overweight patients, a preoperative gastric balloon can help with weight loss, even if it is only a small amount. In most bariatric surgery teams, psychologists and dietitians are included. The decision-making process favors gastric reduction surgery as a result of a joint evaluation of doctors with expertise in various fields.
The sleeve gastrectomy, also known as stomach reduction surgery, is one of the most commonly used surgical procedures today. The stomach is made into a long, thin tube during sleeve gastrectomy surgery. The closed surgery method involves cutting and removing 80 percent of the stomach. In this way, the stomach's food intake capacity is limited. Furthermore, even if food absorption is minimal, gastric sleeve surgery has the effect of reducing it.
Gastric bypass is also preferred in gastric reduction surgeries, despite its rarity. A large portion of the stomach is bypassed in gastric bypass surgery, and a stomach section with a volume of 30-50cc is prepared and sutured to the small intestines.
Gastric bypass surgery, like other obesity surgeries, aims to reduce the size of the stomach and disable a portion of the intestines. As a result, some of the food consumed is discarded without being absorbed. And the patient feels satisfied because he or she eats less.
The gastric clamp method uses a closed surgery method to attach an inflatable band to the gastric inlet. Weight loss is achieved using this method, as well as the others, by restricting food intake. However, because the appetite does not decrease in this manner, some issues arise. Furthermore, the bands must be removed because they can cause serious long-term complications, up to 40% of the time.
A gastric balloon is not a type of obesity surgery. To put it another way, no surgery is done in this application. Only overweight and super obese patients who are preparing for bariatric surgery should use the gastric balloon method to lose weight before surgery. Furthermore, it can be used as an auxiliary method in patients who are slightly overweight and are not candidates for surgery, though this is rare.
In obesity surgery, there are two types of procedures. 1. Food-absorption-impairing bypass surgeries 2- Food restriction surgery, such as a gastric sleeve. Depending on the type of bypass surgery, 5% of patients may experience chronic diarrhea, intestinal entanglement, and ulceration after the procedure.
Strictures that occur during restrictive surgeries can cause nausea and vomiting. In the first week, leakage and bleeding from the staple lines separating the stomach are uncommon. Endoscopic or re-closed correction may be required in these situations.
Obesity surgery has been shown to reduce mortality rates in obesity-related diseases (such as heart attack, stroke, breast cancer).
Obesity not only causes physical problems, but it also has a negative psychological impact on people. As a result, bariatric surgery plays a critical role in the prevention of a variety of diseases. Obesity can lead to the development of the following diseases:
There are some requirements for undergoing bariatric surgery. The body mass index, which is determined by the ratio of height to weight, is the most important of these criteria. A BMI of 20-25 is considered ideal, for sleeve gastrectomy surgery to be performed, the patient's BMI should be more than at least 30.Between the ages of 35 and 40, you're more likely to develop heart disease, fatty liver, diabetes, hypertension, and other health problems. Obesity surgery can be performed if there are chronic patients or if the rate is greater than 40. Obesity surgery is not performed on people who weigh more than 3-5 kilograms.
The patient's weight prior to surgery is the most important factor in determining how much weight will be lost after surgery. The more weight that needs to be lost, the more weight that will be lost following surgery.
Normal eating patterns can be resumed after bariatric surgery in a few weeks. In the first few weeks, liquid foods are consumed, followed by soft foods. Solid foods can now be passed. The first three months after surgery are the most beneficial in terms of weight loss. The first three months are the most important. As a result, patients should only eat liquids and soft foods for the first three months.
As with all surgeries, there are risks in bariatric surgery. The risk is less if the pre-operative preparations and what needs to be done are done, the patient adapts to the surgical team, fulfills the instructions, and the surgeon is experienced. The patient is expected to stand up early after the surgery.
Bariatric surgery, like any other surgery, is painful. It is impossible to claim that the operation is pain-free. Painkillers are used in the hospital if the doctor deems it necessary to try to reduce the severity of pain as much as possible. Constipation and water accumulation in the lungs, which can be caused by constant lying down, can be avoided with a little movement and exercise after surgery.
The incision scars are quite small because obesity surgeries are performed in a closed manner. Typically, three or four holes are used to perform these procedures. The risk of scarring is minimal because these holes are between 0.5 and 1.5 cm in diameter.
Due to technical difficulties or the patient's return to his old eating habits, the patient may gain weight again after obesity surgeries. It is necessary to find other ways to cope with stress other than eating in order to avoid gaining weight after surgery. This problem can always be experienced if the habit of constantly snacking and eating is not set aside to relieve tension and stress during the day. Instead, read a book, watch TV, go for a walk, or do something else that will not harm your body. There are things that can be done to reduce stress.
Weight loss is rapid in the first three months after surgery, but after that, although it slows down a little, the weight loss process can take up to a year. As a result, it is not recommended for women who are considering becoming pregnant to become pregnant for at least a year after surgery. Obesity is a problem that makes it difficult to get pregnant. As a result, many obese women desire bariatric surgery first in order to become pregnant. Pregnancy is not advised for the first year after the operation to ensure that the unborn child does not suffer from nutritional or developmental problems while the mother is pregnant.
It is preferable to do this only once during obesity surgeries, but it is possible that it can be repeated if necessary. If there is a technical problem with the first operation or if the patient's eating habits have returned to their pre-operative state, he can be operated on again 1-1,5 years later, provided he changes his eating habits with psychological support.
Patients experienced some positive side effects after beginning bariatric surgery, including reduced fatty liver, elimination of sleep apnea, improvement of sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels, and improvement of menstrual irregularity in women. Obesity is known to increase the risk of developing a variety of cancers. In this way, it was clear that bariatric surgery was not a weight-loss surgery in and of itself. He is not, however, undergoing plastic surgery. At the end of the day, the primary goal of obesity surgery is to alleviate the negative effects of obesity on human health and quality of life.
Weight loss from bariatric surgery is more permanent than weight loss from diet, sports, or other methods. When weight loss is not maintained, when it is not adopted as a way of life, and when it is returned to the old lifestyle immediately after losing weight, the weight lost through diet and sports is quickly regained. It is not healthy to gain and lose weight on a regular basis, but rather to maintain a healthy weight for many years after losing weight. Obesity surgery, as opposed to diet and sports, is the method that can provide the most stability.
In order to avoid protein, or muscle, wasting in the early postoperative period, a protein-rich diet must be followed. Furthermore, fluid intake is critical for edema removal during this time. Milk, yogurt, and chicken broth soup are examples of liquid and protein foods that should be consumed. Carbonated and high-calorie drinks should be avoided.
This differs from one patient to the next. It is largely dependent on the patient's work. A rest period of 1-1.5 months may be required if the patient works in a job that requires a lot of physical activity. If the job is a computer job or one that does not require a lot of physical exertion, it can usually be started within 15 days. The fact that closed surgeries are performed is the most important reason for the short duration.
It has some long-term negative consequences. Deficiencies in some stomach functions can be seen after bariatric surgery. There could be a problem with iron absorption in the stomach. Vitamin B12 deficiency is visible. These should be followed and reinforced for the rest of one's life.
In terms of technicality, these procedures are more difficult for men. Due to the fact that there are two types of obesity. The first is male type obesity, also known as apple type obesity. The upper body is more rounded, while the legs are more frail. Because the top of the apple type is more rounded like a barrel, surgical intervention may be more difficult. The female type, also known as the pear type, is the second type. The upper body is slimmer, while the hips and legs are bulkier. With this body type, surgical techniques are more straightforward. As a result, men's obesity surgery is a little more difficult than women's.
In the first two months, avoid exercises that require a lot of physical activity. You can do light exercises and go for walks.